# Analog to Digital Converter

Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is the process of converting an analog signal into a digital signal. This can be done in many ways, and there are several ADC chips available in the market like the ADC08xx series from different manufacturers.

ADCs convert analog signals that are continuous and infinitely variable into digital data that can be easily interpreted by computers and microprocessors. This is accomplished by a process called quantization which breaks the input voltage range into a fixed number of discrete steps.

## What is ADC?

In order for an analog signal to be interpreted by the computer, it needs to be converted into a digital form that it can understand. This is done using an ADC.

The ADC takes an analog input voltage and converts it to a digital output value, which appears on the converter output in binary coded form. It uses a sampling block to sample the analog signal at regular intervals, and then performs a quantization process that reduces the analogue signal range into a number of discrete output values. This process introduces a quantization error, which can be limited to a certain degree by the resolution (bit length) of the ADC.

A good ADC design should have a low noise floor, high resolution and a fast conversion time. It should also be able to handle negative voltages.

There are various types of ADCs, each with different performance characteristics. For example, the sampling rate is important for an ideal ADC, as it hot swap voltage controllers determines the number of bits used to represent an analog signal. The ADC output should also be able to span as much of the input signal range as possible without saturating the converter. This allows it to achieve a higher resolution. It is important to test the ADC for static and transfer curve behavior, and it is also important to understand how non-ideal characteristics affect the ADC performance.

## Definition

Analog-to-digital converters convert analog signals into digital data that can be used by computers and other electronic devices. ADCs are essential components in modern electronic devices and allow them to communicate with each other using digital data. The two main features of an ADC are its sample rate and bit resolution.

An ADC consists of several stages. It begins with a sample-and-hold (S/H) circuit that samples the analog signal at a fixed frequency. It then produces a series of binary codes by comparing the output of each comparator with the preceding one. The first comparator output will be high if the input voltage is higher than the reference, and low otherwise.

In the second step of the A/D conversion process, the continuous amplitudes of the analog signal are converted to a set of discrete digital values, known as quantization. The amount by which the amplitudes are quantized is determined by the ADC’s resolution, or the number of bits it has in its output.

Depending on the quantization, the ADC can produce an analog output signal with a very wide range of voltages or currents. It is important to design the ADC so that it can achieve this without sacrificing accuracy. led driver replacement An ADC is said to be monotonic if each increment of its digital-input-code results in an analog output that remains within the error band of LSBs.

## Types

Many modern digital devices rely on ADCs to convert the analogue signals from sensors or transducers into binary codes which can be processed and manipulated by microprocessors and digital circuits. An example is the conversion of the sound wave frequency into a list of binary numbers representing its amplitude.

To make the digital output of an ADC accurately represent the original analog input, it needs to have a high resolution and fast sampling rate. These are two characteristics that define different types of ADCs, mainly their conversion circuit architecture and capabilities.

The most common ADCs are Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADCs, Flash ADCs and Delta-Sigma ADCs. SAR ADCs are based on a simple architecture with comparators that provide multiple voltage levels for each bit, resulting in a small footprint and low latency. However, their amplitude axis resolution is limited and it cannot handle wide range of analog signal amplitudes.

Flash ADCs are based on an array of 2N-1 comparator that works by integrating the input analog signal and the reference voltage to get a time interval proportional to the average value of the input signal. The counter in the array is then clocked to produce the binary code output with the number of bits representing the desired resolution. These are very fast and have good noise performance but the amplitude axis resolution is limited, making them suitable for handheld voltmeters. The latest technology is Delta-Sigma ADCs which are a bit more complex but offer a good balance between size, speed and resolution.

## Applications

While most environmental measurable parameters like temperature, sound, pressure or light are in analog form which can be represented by an infinite number of different voltage values; digital circuits work only with binary signals that contain only two states a logic “1” and a logic “0”. Therefore, we need a device that converts these continuous analogue signals into the discrete digital form which a computer can understand. This is where an ADC comes into play.

ADC converts analogue input signals into a series of binary codes that represent each digital value. The number of bits representing a digital value determines the precision of the digital representation of the analog signal. However, the finite word length of a digital value can cause a small time delay between input and output which is referred to as skew error.

In order to minimize the errors introduced by the finite word length and skew error, an ADC uses a process called sampling. This involves taking periodic samples of the analog signal at a fixed rate. The more samples that are taken per second, the more accurate the digital representation of the analog signal will be.

ADCs are used in various applications including Data Acquisition Systems (DAQ) where conditioned analog signals are converted into a stream of digital data to be stored, analyzed and processed by computers for output interfacing and control purposes.